Where is global warmings missing heat

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Call it the climate change conundrum: Even though humans are pumping more greenhouse gases than ever into the atmosphere, the world’s average air temperature isn’t rising as quickly as it once did. Some scientists have proposed that the missing heat is actually being trapped deep underwater by the Pacific Ocean. But a new modeling study concludes that the Pacific isn’t acting alone. Instead, it finds, several of the world’s oceans are playing a role in the warming slowdown by absorbing their share of the “missing” heat.“There are a lot of details about exactly which ocean basin is taking up the energy,” says Andrew Dessler, an atmospheric scientist at Texas A&M University, College Station, who wasn’t involved in the study. But “I don’t see anything in here that changes our expectations of long-term climate change.”The world’s average air temperature has warmed 0.8°C since the late 1880s, but the warming has slowed precipitously in the last 15 years. Scientists have identified a number of factors—among them a temporary downturn in solar activity and more sun-blocking aerosol pollution—that at least partially explain why air temperatures have barely risen since the turn of the millennium. But recent research suggests that Earth is still taking in more energy from the sun than it’s letting out, to the tune of almost a 60-watt light bulb’s worth for every 100 square meters. This excess energy has to go somewhere. A potential answer? The tropical Pacific Ocean. Changing trade winds here may have helped lower sea surface temperatures by altering ocean circulation patterns and making it so heat that otherwise would be warming the air is now trapped deep underwater. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Email But Sybren Drijfhout, a physical oceanographer at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, questioned whether the Pacific can really account for all the ocean heat trapping and maintain the cool state at its surface on its own. He didn’t study this issue with a traditional climate model. Climate models usually struggle to simulate the warming slowdown on their own unless they incorporate the Pacific’s altered state from the start, he says. Plus, some studies have found heat trapped deep in oceans outside the Pacific, but Drijfhout says these studies don’t show where the heat actually first enters the ocean and how it may travel around once it’s underwater.Armed with a unique model that simulates the world’s oceans using historical weather data on temperature, humidity, and wind, Drijfhout and his colleagues calculated how much heat is moving between the oceans and the atmosphere, as well as where it first enters the ocean. The model revealed that the oceans were trapping more than 80% of the missing heat. But the change in sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific could account for only 30% of the extra ocean heat uptake. The other 70% was split between the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and waters just off Antarctica, Drijfhout and his team reported online this month in Geophysical Research Letters. That suggests that the Pacific isn’t single-handedly running the show after all.The study has prompted disagreement from some other scientists, including Kevin Trenberth, a climate scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. He maintains that the Pacific is still in charge of the heat uptake elsewhere because its surface cooling effect is strongly linked to how other ocean basins behave. In a modeling study reported online in August in Nature Climate Change, Trenberth and colleagues found that cooling the surface of the tropical Pacific altered atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns in ways that were felt around the globe, including in the Atlantic and polar regions, and resulted in an increase in the amount of heat deep in those oceans.Despite the disagreement on which ocean basin is doing what in the air-warming slowdown, however, a broader picture of Earth’s climate is still emerging. “I think all of these things are sort of adding up to an increased picture that, yes, global warming is continuing, but it’s not just at the surface of the Earth,” Trenberth says.last_img read more

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2019-07-20

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US researchers guilty of misconduct later won more than 100 million in

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Lydia Polimeni, National Institutes of Health A House subcommittee’s budget proposal for the National Institues of Health is much more friendly to the agency than that of the Trump administration. By Alison McCook, Retraction WatchFeb. 24, 2017 , 3:15 PM “Clearly, misconduct is not the career-killer one might have expected,” says Galbraith. But a researcher’s place in the academic pecking order appears to matter. Researchers who were faculty members at the time of their sanction were most likely to continue their work. But those in more junior positions, such as graduate students and lab technicians, were less likely to show signs of remaining in research.Galbraith’s findings are likely to upset researchers who don’t think scientists who have committed misconduct deserve a second chance– particularly at a time when even scientists with unblemished records struggle to win NIH grants.“I think it’s a fair question to ask if it’s right for those [scarce] resources to go to someone who’s been found guilty of misconduct,” Galbraith says. But even he’s not sure about the final answer. “It depends on what day you ask me,” he says. He notes that one new initiative—known as the P.I. Program—is trying to rehabilitate scientists from various U.S. universities with a history of bad behavior. And Galbraith says his findings suggest that at least NIH is willing to overlook past transgressions. “The sheer amount of funds given [to those sanctioned for misconduct] suggests the agency is at least open to second chances.”(To learn more about how some scientists fare after a federal sanction for misconduct, see Science reporter Jeffrey Mervis’s story about researchers debarred by another major federal science funder, the National Science Foundation.) Those numbers “really surprised” Kyle Galbraith, research integrity officer at the University of Illinois in Urbana and author of the new study, published earlier this month by the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. “I knew from my work and reading other studies that careers after misconduct were possible. But the volume kind of shocked me,” he says.Galbraith identified 284 people who had been subjected to sanctions by the U.S. Office of Research Integrity (ORI) between April 1992 and February 2016 for scientific misconduct (falsifying or fabricating data, or plagiarism). Sanctions included being temporarily (or, in rare cases, permanently) barred from receiving funding from the federal Public Health Service (PHS, which includes NIH and other HHS agencies) or serving on PHS advisory boards and grant review panels, having their research supervised, or submitting corrections or retractions to published articles.Galbraith then searched through public databases and online resources to see how many of the 284 sanctioned researchers continued on in research. He searched for papers they had published in journals indexed by PubMed, grants they had won from NIH, and evidence that they held appointments in research fields. He found that nearly half—47.2%—had continued in research.Overall, 23 of the scientists (roughly 8% of sanctioned researchers) received NIH funding after receiving an ORI sanction. Of that group, 17 researchers won more than $101 million for 61 new projects. Thirteen continued to receive funding from NIH grants that had been awarded before being sanctioned.  Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email U.S. researchers guilty of misconduct later won more than $100 million in NIH grants, study finds Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Many believe that once a scientist is found guilty of research misconduct, his or her scientific career is over. But a new study suggests that, for many U.S. researchers judged to have misbehaved, there is such a thing as a second chance.Nearly one-half of 284 researchers who were sanctioned for research misconduct in the last 25 years by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the largest U.S. funder of biomedical research, ultimately continued to publish or work in research in some capacity, according to a new analysis.And a small number of those scientists—17, to be exact—went on to collectively win $101 million in new funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).last_img read more

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2019-07-20

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Teen zebra finches seek moms approval for their new tunes

first_img Michael Goldstein When the birds were sexually mature at 90 days old, the scientists compared the young males’ songs with those of their fathers. The birds that got female feedback in response to their singing were far more accurate than their peers, with eight of nine belting out melodies more acoustically similar to those of their fathers. “We’ve shown that a young male zebra finch isn’t learning his song via a special imitation box in his head,” Goldstein says. “He’s learning it from his mom, who loves his dad’s song and is already excited and aroused by that song.”Such active learning closely resembles how human infants learn speech, the scientists note, making these finches even better models for studying language acquisition across species. For a young male finch, mom’s approval means he’ll likely be successful at his chief job in life: attracting a mate and reproducing. Michael Goldstein By Virginia MorellJan. 31, 2019 , 11:00 AM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The young male learns his father’s song in part by watching his mother for cues that signal he’s singing it right. Email It’s hard to imagine a teen asking their mother for approval on anything. But a new study shows that male zebra finches—colorful songbirds with complex songs—learn their father’s tune better when mom “fluffs up” to signal her approval. This is the first time the songbirds, thought to be mere memorization machines, have been shown to use social cues for learning—putting them in an elite club that includes cowbirds, marmosets, and humans. The finding suggests other songbirds might also learn their tunes this way, and that zebra finches are better models for studying language development than thought.“Female zebra finches play an important role in male learning, in some ways even rivaling that of the male tutors,” says Karl Berg, an avian ecologist at the University of Texas in Brownsville, who was not involved in the new study. Previously, scientists knew only that the nonsinging females played some role in song acquisition, because males raised with deaf females develop incorrect songs.Researchers have long known that female brown-headed cowbirds make quick, lateral wing strokes to approve the songs of juvenile males (as in finches, only male cowbirds learn to sing). Most scientists discounted the cowbirds’ social cues as an isolated oddity, because the birds are brood parasites. But cowbirds’ similarities to zebra finches—both are highly social and use their songs to attract mates rather than claim territories—led Cornell University developmental psychobiologists Samantha Carouso-Peck and Michael Goldstein to wonder whether female finches also use social cues to help young males learn the best, mate-attracting songs. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) It takes a typical zebra finch 55 days to learn dad’s rhythmic, beeping tune. Carouso-Peck and Goldstein selected nine pairs of zebra finch brothers that were raised by their parents until they were 35 days old and just starting to practice their fathers’ songs. For 1 hour daily over 25 days, each brother sang by himself in a sound chamber equipped with a video monitor and camera. Whenever they sang, a scientist played a video of an unrelated adult female finch erecting her feathers and moving her upper body quickly from side to side; such “fluff-ups” signal that females like a male’s tune.  At the same time, the scientist played the video for the other brother, even if he wasn’t singing. Teen zebra finches seek moms’ approval for their new tunes Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country An adult male zebra finch (center) perches between his mate (left) and his son (right).last_img read more

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2019-07-20

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These falling drops dont splash—they spin

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Depending on the design of the wettable and nonwettable regions, not only can drops be made to rotate, but can also roll, deflect, or show a combination of different motions, making droplets dance to the tune of the surface patterns. Controlling how liquid drops bounce off a surface may be useful in many areas such self-cleaning surfaces, deicing applications, or for mixing different materials. Email These falling drops don’t splash—they spin Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img By Lakshmi SupriyaMar. 5, 2019 , 11:00 AM Falling drops usually make a splash, but these drops do the twist. Researchers have created surfaces that can make droplets spin and whirl at more than 7300 revolutions per minute when they rebound.To make the water droplets spin, researchers first had to make sure they didn’t wet the surface they fell on—otherwise, they’d just splash. The researchers did this by coating alumina plates with a fluorinated nonstick coating, similar to those found in nonstick cooking pans. Next, they masked some regions of the surface and shone ultraviolet (UV) light on the entire plate. The regions exposed to the UV became highly “wettable,” meaning water touching those regions spread out immediately rather than bouncing back up. The team created several designs of the wettable regions, including one with spiral arms radiating out from a center, much like a pinwheel.As the droplet bounds up from the patterned surface, the portions encountering the wettable spirals stick to the surface, whereas the parts of the droplet in contact with the water-repelling surface rebound immediately. This creates a set of unbalanced forces, pulling on the droplet more in some parts than in others, twisting it, the team reports today in Nature Communications. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrylast_img read more

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2019-07-20

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5 Things Suggesting OJ Got Away With Murder

first_imgUPDATED: 6:51 a.m., June 12, 2019 —The downfall of O.J. Simpson began on this date 25 years ago, although the public didn’t realize it at the time. The former football star-turned actor-turned commercial pitchman’s ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman were both found dead in her southern California home on June 12, 1994. Five days later, Simpson caught the country’s attention by leading police on a slow, lengthy car chase that many found incriminating before he was arrested and taken into custody as the prime suspect for the killings. 11. The infamous Bronco chase. O.J. Simpson White Bronco Chase Source:Getty 5 of 28 20 of 28 24. Robert Shapiro in 2015. 22nd Annual Race To Erase MS - Arrivals Source:Getty 9. The scene around O.J.’s October 3rd trial date. O.J. Simpson Trial Source:Getty Oj Simpson killed two people then got off not guilty…. Years later does a Tv confession about his book called “If I did it”. He then explains in the interview/book how he would have killed them both “HYPOTHETICALLY” of course, because it’s all just a made up story…. pic.twitter.com/QDK7ROraoy— Andrew Long (@_AndrewLong) May 17, 20185. THE “IF I DID IT” BOOK — There’s no greater way to say “I’m guilty” than to publish a book detailing how you would hypothetically do it, all in the name of profit. An excerpt from the book reads:“If I had actually done it… I would have brought my good gloves that day. I would have thought it was shame they shrunk when I left them out on the patio, but I would have brought them just the same. They were my lucky gloves, and I would have needed them cause I was going to stab my slut of a wife… hypothetically.”SEE ALSO:“Concussion” Doctor Bennet Omalu Suspects O.J. Simpson Has CTE Brain DiseaseO.J. Simpson Almost Killed Himself In Kim Kardashian’s Childhood Bedroom Before Infamous Bronco ChaseCuba Gooding Jr. Set To Star In Televised O.J. Simpson Trial Miniseries 13. A much earlier photo of O.J. and his good friend AI Cowlings, circa 1979. O.J. Simpson Source:Getty 40 Photos Of O.J. Simpson & The Key Players In His Murder Trial Launch gallery A quarter of a century later, Simpson said that he prefers to “focus on the positives” instead of reflecting on that fateful day that changed the trajectory of his life forever.OJ Simpson Criminal Trial - Simpson Tries on Blood Stained Gloves - June 15, 1995Source: Lee Celano / GettyIn an interview with the Washington Post, Simpson spoke candidly about everything except that 1995 day in Brentwood, California. He remains living in Nevada, where he was in prison for nine years for kidnapping and armed robbery convictions in a 2007 sting operation.“The town has been good to me,” Simpson told the Post. “Everybody I meet seems to be apologizing for what happened to me here.”Chances are that he hasn’t been on the receiving end of too many apologies over those killings 25 years ago.OJ Simpson Criminal Trial - Arrest of O.J. SimpsonSource: Ron Galella / Getty 16. Deputy district attorney Marcia Clark is shown during testimony at the preliminary hearings. Preliminary Hearing Following the Murders of O.J. Simpson's Ex-Wife and Her Friend Source:Getty 24 of 28 17 of 28 Nicole Brown Simpson , O. J. Simpson , O.J. Murder Trial 21 of 28 SHOCKING DEVELOPMENT: The LAPD is now testing a knife found buried on OJ Simpson’s former estate for DNA.https://t.co/TzhZtibR5I— FOX&friends Weekend (@ffweekend) March 5, 20162. THE INFAMOUS CAR CHASE — On the day of his arrest, the LAPD chased Simpson in his white Bronco for hours. To top it off, the spectacle was all caught on tape. Continue reading 40 Photos Of O.J. Simpson & The Key Players In His Murder Trial 7 of 28 11 of 28 5. Judge Lance Ito listens to defense motions to exclude Mark Fuhrman’s testimony and the prosecutions’ response to retain the information 11 September during a court hearing in the O.J. Simpson murder trail. Judge Lance Ito listens to defense motions to excl Source:Getty 14 of 28 3 of 28 7. Deputy District Attorney Chris Darden asks Judge Lance Ito in the O.J.Simpson case 13 January to bar the defense from asking Los Angeles Police detective Mark Fuhrman if he ever uttered a racial epithet. Deputy District Attorney Chris Darden asks Judge L Source:Getty 14. O.J. tries on a glove that was used in the murder of his ex-wife. OJ Simpson Criminal Trial - Simpson Tries on Blood Stained Gloves - June 15, 1995 Source:Getty 8. Did O.J. do it? O.J. Simpson Source:Getty 10 of 28 18. Robert Shapiro reads O.J.’s damning letter to the press. O.J. Simpson Letter Source:Getty 9 of 28 4 of 28 27 of 28 6 of 28 More By NewsOne Staff 12. The crowd cheers after hearing the verdict on October 3rd, 1995. O.J. Simpson Trial Source:Getty 25 of 28 25. O.J. Simpson leaving the courthouse after the civil trial that followed his murder trial. ME.OJ.for mika.1122.RG –– O.J. Simpson leaves the Santa Monica Courthouse after a day of testifying Source:Getty 40 Photos Of O.J. Simpson & The Key Players In His Murder Trial 19. O.J. Simpson with Nicole and the kids during happier times. 1994 Premiere 'Naked Gun 33 1/3' Source:Getty 6. O.J. x Johnnie Cochran. Murder defendant O.J. Simpson (L) points towards p Source:Getty 12 of 28 23 of 28 O.J. seen talking to his lawyers Robert Shapiro, Johnnie Cochran, and Robert Kardashian during a trial date. 18 of 28 17. O.J. Simpson and his kids at Nicole Simpson’s funeral. O. J. Simpson And Children Source:Getty 19 of 28 10. O.J.’s sister spotted near the crime scene. Murder Scene Source:Getty 4. AI Cowlings, the friend who drove O.J. during his infamous Bronco chase. Press Conference with Al Cowlings (Pro Football Player and Friends with O.J. Simpson and Nicole Brown) Source:Getty 3. O.J. Simpson and his ex-wife Nicole Brown in seemingly happier times. 1994 Premiere 'Naked Gun 33 1/3' Source:Getty 15. O.J. Simpson and his ex-wife Nicole Brown in seemingly happier times. The Simpsons At Harley Davidson Café Source:Getty How The News Cycle Dictates ‘The Talk’ Parents Have With Their Kids Some people have pointed to the Nevada robbery as proof that Simpson was capable of committing murder, but no one — not even a jury of his peers — has been able to provide any proof beyond a reasonable doubt that he is guilty. With that said, Simpson has remained dogged by a handful of noteworthy indications that the former football star, actor and TV pitchman may have indeed gotten away with murder.1. DNA — The prosecution of Simpson’s case presented compelling DNA evidence, including matching bloody footprints, hair follicles, and a glove found near Simpson’s home containing blood that tested positive as belonging to Goldman. Blood was also found in Simpson’s Ford Bronco near the driver’s outside door handle. Other blood samples were smeared inside on the console, door, steering wheel, and carpeting. DNA tests showed some of the blood consisted of a mixture of Simpson’s genetic markers and the victims’. 26. O.J. heads to the place he knows best, court. ME. simpson.4.KL.5/15––SANTA MONICA––O.J. Simpson a heads for Santa Monica courtroom Thursday, 5/15, Source:Getty 2. The late Robert Kardashian defends his friend O.J. Simpson in court. Murder defendant O.J. Simpson (R) listens to testi Source:Getty 23. Robert Shapiro x O.J. Simpson. Preliminary Hearing Following the Murders of O.J. Simpson's Ex-Wife and Her Friend Source:Getty 2 of 28 16 of 28 15 of 28 20. Johnnie Cochran lays down the law, circa 1995. Defense lawyer Johnnie Cochran Jr. points to the d Source:Getty Skip ad 13 of 28 The Duality Of The Role Fear Plays In ‘The Talk’ 1994 Premiere 'Naked Gun 33 1/3' #OJSimpson’s new alibi: pic.twitter.com/ukL8IFl6t5— TrivWorks (@TrivWorks) March 4, 20164. MOTIVE — According to the prosecution, Simpson had plenty of motive to kill his ex-wife. Simpson was reportedly prone to jealous rages (evidenced by taped 911 calls from Nicole herself), including allegedly hitting, stalking, and degrading her — all signs that he was quite capable of murder. 8 of 28 22. Robert Kardashian sits through trial. Preliminary Hearing Following the Murders of O.J. Simpson's Ex-Wife and Her Friend Source:Getty 21. The Juice at his 1994-1995 murder trial. A photograph dated 29 September 1994 of O.J. Simps Source:Getty 28 of 28 1 of 28 1. O.J. seen talking to his lawyers Robert Shapiro, Johnnie Cochran, and Robert Kardashian during a trial date. O.J. Simpson (C) confers with attorneys Johnnie Co Source:Getty 26 of 28 27. O.J. at an evidentiary hearing in 2013. O.J. Simpson Seeks Retrial In Las Vegas Court - Day 2 Source:Getty 28. O.J. at an evidentiary hearing in 2013. O.J. Simpson Seeks Retrial In Las Vegas Court - Day 5 Source:Getty ‘The Talk’ 101 Motorists Wave At O.J. Simpson During Police Freeway PursuitSource: Jean-Marc Giboux / Getty3. CHANGE OF ALIBI — O.J.’s initial alibi was that he was asleep at the time of the murder. His defense later changed that alibi with a series of stories, one of which claimed he was hitting golf balls outside his home. Simpson’s defense also claimed that a neighbor’s housekeeper, Rosa Lopez, saw his car parked outside the home. However, Lopez later confessed during cross-examination that she could not be precisely sure whether or not his Bronco was there. 22 of 28 last_img read more

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2019-07-20

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Candace Owens Tweets About Deporting Ilhan Omar

first_imgCandace Owens is clearly threatened by women of color who have actually worked to became elected officials like Maxine Waters, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and now she is obsessing over IIlhan Omar. The pro-Hitler college dropout is calling for her to be deported by Trump.SEE ALSO: ‘Young Black Conservatives’ Chant ‘Build That Wall’ At Deplorable Sunken Place SummitOmar tweeted, “How many more protesters must be shot, rockets must be fired, and little kids must be killed until the endless cycle of violence ends? The status quo of occupation and humanitarian crisis in Gaza is unsustainable. Only real justice can bring about security and lasting peace.” US-ENTERTAINMENT-TELEVISION-COSBY-COURT Here is video of Candace Owens’ full answer on nationalism and Hitler pic.twitter.com/NfBvoH8vQg— John Whitehouse (@existentialfish) February 8, 2019Clearly, Candace Owens has been deported to the sunken place and she will never escape.SEE ALSO:All The Ways Cops Are Still Trying To Cover Up LaQuan McDonald’s ExecutionOutrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes One of the reasons why the members turned on her was after she made flattering comments about mass murderous Nazi Adolf Hitler.“When we say nationalism, the first thing people think about, at least in America, is Hitler. He was a national socialist. If Hitler just wanted to make Germany great and have things run well, okay, fine,” Owens said Feb. 9 at a London event to launch the British chapter of Turning Point USA.She continued, “The problem is he wanted, he had dreams outside of Germany. He wanted to globalize, he wanted everybody to be German, everybody to be speaking German, everybody to look a different way. To me, that’s not nationalism. So in thinking about how it could go bad down the line, I don’t really have an issue with nationalism, I really don’t.” A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ Bill Cosby Gets Sentenced For His Sexual Assault Conviction More By NewsOne Staffcenter_img How many more protesters must be shot, rockets must be fired, and little kids must be killed until the endless cycle of violence ends?The status quo of occupation and humanitarian crisis in Gaza is unsustainable. Only real justice can bring about security and lasting peace.— Ilhan Omar (@IlhanMN) May 5, 2019In response, Owens babbled, “In her defense, supporting terrorists in the Middle East seems to me to be the next logical step for a party that defends MS-13, demands open borders, and hates Jewish people and babies. Separately, how funny if Trump just deported her?” Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Family Candace Owens , Hitler , Ilhan Omar , Turning Point USA In her defense, supporting terrorists in the Middle East seems to me to be the next logical step for a party that defends MS-13, demands open borders, and hates Jewish people and babies. Separately, how funny if Trump just deported her? https://t.co/v0GDNB2Evq— Candace Owens (@RealCandaceO) May 6, 2019Hates Jewish people? This coming from the person who said Hitler just wanted to “make Germany great again.”The disgusting comments from Owens makes you wonder if Louis Farrakhan was banned from Facebook, why isn’t the 30-year-old banned for spitting hate everyday?Clearly, she is in desperate need for attention, especially after she “resigned” as the communications director of Turning Point USA.There had been calls for Owens to leave Turning Point USA for months. Back in February, Turning Point USA campus chapters at the University of Nebraska Omaha, Bowling Green State University and the University of Colorado were demanding that Owens be fired or resign. Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racistlast_img read more

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2019-07-20

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Parliament meets to amend Police Act

first_imgShareTweetSharePinParliament building in RoseauParliament meets today to amend the Police Act for a new health insurance for police officers.This move closely follows a statement made by Minister for Justice, Immigration and National Security, Rayburn Blackmoore earlier this month that the legislation would soon be taken to parliament.The Police Welfare Association (PWA), headed by Chairman, Jefferson Drigo has been advocating for several years for government to amend the Police Act so that the PWA could leave the financially collapsed Colonial Life Insurance Company (CLICO), due to late refunds and failure to provide other benefits.A draft of the amendment was eventually presented to the Police Welfare Association (PWA) on March 21, 2019 which the PWA accepted, urging government to move quickly on the matter.Prime Minister Skerrit, in announcing the decision to take the amendment to parliament, said the current insurance arrangement had expired and it requires a simple amendment to the law to allow for the cabinet to engage formally, with another insurance company.“Obviously, we have identified one but we need the legislative backing. So, we need to do that quickly and I did promise the police that once they clear it with their membership if it means I have to go to Parliament in an emergency session pass the legislation the we’ll do so, Skerrit said. “I’ve been so advised by the Attornet General and the Minister for National Security that it has been cleared by the police and I’ve instructed that it go to parliament in emergency session to pass this simple amendment.Parliament begins at 10:00 o’clock this morning and will broadcast live by state-owned DBS Radio.last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Joseph City welcomes board members

first_img RelatedSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad Joseph City welcomes board members Photo courtesy of Joseph City Unified School DistrictNavajo County Superintendent of Schools Jalyn Gerlich (left) swore in three board members as Joseph City Unified School District Governing Board members earlier this month including (left to right) Karsten Flake, Rhonda Roberson and Dayton Flake.center_img December 24, 2018last_img

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2019-07-19

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In a first Lucknow Ghaziabad civic bodies to float bonds to fund

first_img Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off Top News P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Post Comment(s) Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 In a first, Lucknow, Ghaziabad civic bodies to float bonds to fund infra projects CM at the meeting in Lucknow Monday. (Express Photo)IN A first, the Lucknow and Ghaziabad municipal corporations in Uttar Pradesh will soon float municipal bonds to fund their infrastructure projects. Advertising By Express News Service |Lucknow | Published: July 16, 2019 4:13:20 am Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 center_img Advertising Cabinet also approved the proposal to to increase the penalty on sale of liquour above the MRP from existing Rs 10,000 to Rs 75000 for those found to be first time offenders and from Rs 20,000 to Rs 1.5 lakh for second time offenders.For those found to be selling liqour above the MRP for the third time in the state and were earlier required to pay Rs 30,000 fine, State Government has decided to cancel their license on repeat of the offense for the third time. P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies A proposal for the same was cleared by the state Cabinet Monday and it was decided that while Rs 200 crore worth municipal bonds would be floated by Lucknow Municipal Corporation, Rs 150 crore worth municipal bonds would be floated by Ghaziabad Municipal Corporation to raise funds for infrastructure.“The idea is to make municipal corporations self-sufficient,” said Cabinet minister and government spokesperson, Srikant Sharma, after the meeting.Manoj Kumar Singh, Principal Secretary, Urban Development, said, “This is for the first time in Uttar Pradesh that municipal bonds are being floated. The funds raised would be used for infrastructure. While there are two projects in Lucknow, that is of drinking water and sewage. In Ghaziabad, there is a project for sewage treatment plan, where proposal is to further sell the treated water for industrial use,” Best Of Express He said these bonds would be floated for 10 years and said a presentation in this regard was made before the Bombay Stock Exchange. Singh added that apart from bringing in funds, it would also help corporations learn lessons in professionalism and “financial discipline”.The Cabinet also cleared a proposal to transfer nearly 43 hectares of land with the agriculture department to the Industrial Development Department for construction of Defence corridor. Cabinet Minister Srikant Sharma informed that around 2,500 acres in Chitrakoot, Jhansi and Aligarh had been acquired for the project.The defence corridor project was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during investors summit in Lucknow last year. The project would cover Aligarh, Agra, Jhansi, Kanpur, Lucknow and Chitrakoot districts.In another decision, the Cabinet approved the proposal to directly initiate the action of cancellation of license if one is found guilty of adulteration in liqour. Earlier, Government used to impose fine of Rs 40,000 for first time offenders and Rs 50,000 for second time offenders and license was canceled on repeating the offence for the third time. Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Climate protesters storm openpit mine in western Germany

first_img Karnataka trust vote today: Speaker’s call on resignations, says SC, but gives rebel MLAs a shield germany, germany climate activists protest, RWE protest, Garzweiler mine, Garzweiler mine protest Police officers stand inside a pit of Garzweiler open cast brown coal mine during a protest against the climate change near Duesseldorf, Germany June 22, 2019. (Source: Reuters)The mine has been a focus of environmental protests in recent years because the operator, German utility company RWE, planned to cut down a forest to enlarge it.“It’s important to increase the pressure on the government,” protester Selma Schubert said. “The government doesn’t do enough against climate change.”Participants in the Saturday protests held banners calling for climate protection and sang songs as they marched. According to German environmental group Bund, more than 8,000 people took part.“You’re building a movement, that’s beautiful,” Seimi Rowin, who came from Scotland to protest, said. “But we need to get to the next step … otherwise future generations will pay for it.” Police ordered the activists to leave the vast, open-pit Garzweiler mine in western Germany, citing life-threatening dangers. German news agency dpa reported that some officers were hurt, but didn’t have any further details.The occupation was among several demonstrations near the mine and adjacent power plants that attracted thousands of people to the village of Hochneukirch and surrounding Rhineland areas.Earlier Saturday, dozens of protesters temporarily blocked railroad tracks used to transport coal. The vast majority of rallies and protests remained peaceful. Best Of Express Virat Kohli won’t have a say in choosing new coach Europe should brace for US tariffs on several fronts, says German official Related News 1 Comment(s) Advertisingcenter_img Advertising After Masood Azhar blacklisting, more isolation for Pakistan germany, germany climate activists protest, RWE protest, Garzweiler mine, Garzweiler mine protest Environmental activists sit inside a pit of Garzweiler open cast brown coal mine during a protest against the climate change near Duesseldorf, Germany June 22, 2019. (Source: Reuters)Hundreds of environmental activists broke through a police cordon to enter one of Germany’s biggest lignite coal mines Saturday, determined to draw attention to the urgency of climate change after a plan to make the European Union carbon neutral by 2050 failed to find agreement. By AP | Published: June 23, 2019 8:09:34 am Retracing Germany’s tragic Kindertransport, 80 years later Germany’s Von der Leyen voted new European Commission president Following months of climate protests by students and a sharp rise in the polls for Germany’s Green party, Chancellor Angela Merkel recently threw her weight behind the goal of making Germany climate neutral by 2050. That would mean the country’s economy no longer would add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.Scientists say ending fossil fuel use by mid-century is a must if countries want to achieve the 2015 Paris climate accord’s most ambitious goal of keeping global temperatures from rising more than 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) compared to pre-industrial times.last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Huge trove of British biodata is unlocking secrets of depression sexual orientation

first_img We were aiming to get heterogeneity, but it’s difficult. 2016 2017 (GRAPHIC) N. DESAI/SCIENCE; (DATA) UK BIOBANK April 2002 The U.K. is getting all of the world’s best brains [to study its citizens]. 20002002200420062008201020122014201620182020 March 2000 Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe N. DESAI/SCIENCE May 2015 All exome data released. When the Manchester-based UKB enrolled its first volunteer 13 years ago, some critics wondered whether it would be a waste of time and money. But by now, any skepticism is long gone. “It’s now clear that it has been a massive success—largely because the big data they have are being made widely available,” says Oxford developmental neuropsychologist Dorothy Bishop, a participant. Other biobanks are bigger or collect equally detailed health data. But the UKB has both large numbers of participants and high-quality clinical information. It “allows us to do research on a scale that we’ve never been able to do before,” says Peter Visscher, a quantitative geneticist at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.The crucial ingredient, however, may be open access. Researchers around the world can freely delve into the UKB data and rapidly build on one another’s work, resulting in unexpected dividends in diverse fields, such as human evolution. In a crowdsourcing spirit rare in the hypercompetitive world of biomedical research, groups even post tools for using the data without first seeking credit by publishing in a journal.”The U.K. is getting all of the world’s best brains” to study its citizens, says Ewan Birney, director of the EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, U.K., and a member of the UKB’s steering committee. The U.K. focus is also the project’s chief downside, as it explores just one slice of humanity: northern Europeans. It holds data for only about 20,000 people of African or Asian descent, for example. Yet as new papers appear every few days, researchers say the UKB remains a shining example of the power of curiosity unleashed. “It’s the thing we always dreamed of,” Lander says. NIGEL HILIER It’s now clear that it has been a massive success—largely because the big data they have are being made widely available. March 2019 In early 2017, epidemiologist Rory Collins at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom and his team faced a test of their principles. They run the UK Biobank (UKB), a huge research project probing the health and genetics of 500,000 British people. They were planning their most sought-after data release yet: genetic profiles for all half-million participants. Three hundred research groups had signed up to download 8 terabytes of data—the equivalent of more than 5000 streamed movies. That’s enough to tie up a home computer for weeks, threatening a key goal of the UKB: to give equal access to any qualified researcher in the world.”We wanted to create a level playing field” so that someone at a big center with a supercomputer was at no more of an advantage than a postdoc in Scotland with a smaller computer and slower internet link, says Oxford’s Naomi Allen, the project’s chief epidemiologist. They came up with a plan: They gave researchers 3 weeks to download the encrypted files. Then, on 19 July 2017, they released a final encryption key, firing the starting gun for a scientific race.Within a couple of days, one U.S. group had done quick analyses linking more than 120,000 genetic markers to more than 2000 diseases and traits, data it eventually put up on a blog. Only 60,000 markers had previously been tied to disease, says human geneticist Eric Lander, president and director of the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts. “[They] doubled that in a week.” Engine of productivity Published papers based on the UK Biobank’s bounty of health and genetics data are piling up fast, in part because the data are freely available. 2014 Ewan Birney, EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute March 2012 Recruitment of participants Related story 2018 Expert panel proposes cohort study of 500,000 adults. Genetic data on half a million Brits reveal ongoing evolution and Neanderthal legacy July 2017 Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img In contrast, the Wellcome Trust and U.K. Medical Research Council insisted that any researcher approved by the UKB board, anywhere in the world, be able to download anonymized data sets on all 500,000 participants. (Users pay a relatively modest fee of $2500 and agree to return their raw data, results, and code to the UKB after publishing. They also sign a legal agreement not to try to reidentify any participant.)”It was a novel concept,” says Collins, who says he’s lost track of the times someone has asked him after a talk whether he’s interested in collaborating. “I have to say, ‘You just request the data.’ To some extent people don’t believe it.”The aim is to maximize the scientific pay-off: “By making data available to 100 people around the world, we can get a lot more research done than if I sit here and do one study a year with the data,” he says.In 2015, his team released the first batch of genetic data on a subset of 150,000 participants. Then came the July 2017 release of full genotyping data for all 500,000. Two months later, Benjamin Neale’s group at the Broad Institute put up its blog doubling the number of markers linked to traits and disorders, as well as a web browser for looking up specific markers. “We viewed it as a service to the community,” Neale says.Today, about 7000 researchers have registered to use UKB data on 1400 projects, and nearly 600 papers have been published. Some studies simply link behaviors and disease, for example reporting that drinking more coffee can reduce mortality but that binge-watching TV is associated with more colon cancer. But most studies compare the genomes of people with some trait or disease with those without it, in order to home in on genes that influence that attribute; these projects are known as genome-wide association studies.The result, every few days, is a new paper using UKB data to link particular gene variants to a disease or trait—arthritis, type 2 diabetes, depression, neuroticism, heart disease. “It’s so easy for people who don’t collect their own data,” says statistical geneticist Danielle Posthuma of Vrije University in Amsterdam, who studies brain diseases. By combining data from the UKB and other collections, investigators can amass samples of a million people or more, amplifying the signal of gene variants with subtle effects. For some diseases, dozens or hundreds of genes appear to play a role. The genetic links are suggestive correlations; establishing cause and effect will take more genetics work and lab studies, which could reveal new disease pathways that might be drug targets. The UKB’s unusual design does have some limitations. The big one: Ninety-four percent of participants are white. “It’s really good if you’re British or European,” Lander says. But, “If you’re an American without European ancestry or an African or Asian, you’re going to be poorly serviced by the new polygenic risk scores.” Nor will scores for traits such as educational attainment be meaningful in people with non-European ancestry.The mailed invitation recruitment strategy didn’t work as well as hoped, says Collins, who notes that young, low-income, white men are also scarce in the database. “We were aiming to get heterogeneity, but it’s difficult.”Bishop blames the project’s slant toward higher income, healthy, white people on a lack of incentives for participants—they don’t get even a small payment or the promise of receiving their test results. The people attracted to the project were those with enough spare time to participate or “who [wanted] to help research,” she says.One problem is that many immigrants to the United Kingdom have little experience with the research world, says Naveed Sattar, an adviser to the UKB and a clinical researcher and epidemiologist at the University of Glasgow. “Most first generation Asians simply have no prior experience of what research is and that it may help their community and their children in the future,” he says. Surveys have found that immigrants are often suspicious of participating in research—perhaps because of unethical past studies in some countries, or concern that genetic findings could be used to discriminate. 2013 Exome data on 50,000 to be released. Rory Collins, UK Biobank principal investigator Genotyping data on 500,000 released. Huge trove of British biodata is unlocking secrets of depression, sexual orientation, and more October 2015 Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Dorothy Bishop, University of Oxford 2015 Email UK Biobank Principal Investigator Rory Collins stands amid stored biospecimens from the project’s half-million participants. Genotyping data on 150,000 released. Long-term investment Nearly 2 decades after U.K. funding organizations proposed a large, long-term health study, the database is paying off richly; its timeline is punctuated by massive, open-access data releases. Meanwhile, participants age and develop diseases, adding power and momentum to the project. UK Biobank resource launches. Within 2 weeks, others had begun to post draft manuscripts on the bioRxiv preprint site. By now, those data have spawned dozens of papers in journals or on bioRxiv, firming up how particular genes contribute to heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and other conditions, as well as genes’ role in shaping personality, depression, birth weight, insomnia, and other traits. More controversially, data from the trove also pointed to DNA markers linked to education level and sexual orientation, stoking long-running controversies about the application of genetics to behavior in people. 0 50 100 150 200 250 Wellcome Trust and U.K. government announce initial funding of £45 million. Imaging data available for 5000. By Jocelyn Kaiser, Ann GibbonsJan. 3, 2019 , 1:20 PM 2020 The UKB was announced in the early 2000s as a classical epidemiological study—the kind used to associate risk factors such as diet and smoking with the development of disease over time. The model was the famous Framingham Heart Study, a long-term study that initially analyzed 5200 residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, seeking factors that influence heart disease. The UKB project, which has received $308 million in funding so far from the Wellcome Trust medical charity, the U.K. government, and disease foundations, “was going to be like Framingham, only 100 times bigger,” says principal investigator Collins.From 2006 to 2010, the UKB enrolled 500,000 people aged 40 to 69 through the United Kingdom’s National Health Service. Mailed invitations were sent widely, including to people in poor and ethnically diverse areas of cities such as Birmingham. But in the end, participants were “anybody you could persuade,” Collins says. Investigators sampled their blood and urine, surveyed their habits, and examined them for more than 2400 different traits or phenotypes, including data on their social lives, cognitive state, lifestyle, and physical health.The blood samples yielded DNA for genomic analyses. Links to other U.K. databases added information such as cancer diagnoses, deaths, and hospitalizations. “If you’re talking about common phenotypes, the Biobank shines,” Lander says. “There’s arm fat, smoking behavior, miserableness, neurotic behavior, time on your computer, eating behavior, drinking behavior.”Other biobanks have comparably rich health data, such as deCODE Genetics’s detailed database on Iceland’s population and biobanks run by U.S. health care providers. Some, such as the U.S. Million Veteran Program and the DNA testing company 23andMe, are bigger. But in most cases researchers can use these databases only by collaborating with their creators. In the near term, the large sample sizes are boosting the power of “polygenic” risk scores, which calculate a person’s disease risk by combining many genetic markers. For example, one study published in August 2018 in Nature Genetics drew on the July 2017 data to devise risk scores for five diseases, including breast cancer and heart disease. The authors, at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and the Broad Institute, found that a surprisingly high 8% of people of European descent have at least a threefold elevated risk for heart disease. And up to 6% have a three-fold increase in risk for one of the four other diseases, suggesting they should be screened early and consider lifestyle changes or other measures that could improve their odds.The most provocative studies have probed for genetic influences on human behavior. One, published in Nature Genetics in July 2018, drew on the UKB and 23andMe to pin down genetic contributions to a person’s level of education. Together, 1300 genetic markers accounted for 11% of the variability among individuals, the researchers found. That’s comparable to certain environmental influences in the UKB sample, such as family income, which predicted just 7% of the variance in educational attainment among participants; and mother’s education level, which predicted 15%. Another study presented at a meeting last fall found four genetic markers that appear to have a strong influence on whether a person has had sex with someone of their own sex at least once.Such studies are raising concerns that genetic tests could be used to screen embryos for desired traits or discriminate against individuals with certain genetic profiles. That would be a misuse of the findings, say the researchers who identified these links. They stress that the probabilities mean little on the individual level. Engaging such groups is possible, says geneticist David Van Heel of Queen Mary University of London, who heads the Genes & Health study, which so far has enrolled 33,000 Britons of Bangladeshi and Pakistani ancestry. In his experience, South Asians in the United Kingdom are less likely to respond to mailed invitations. His project achieved success by approaching potential participants in person—sometimes in their native language—in “trusted” settings such as health clinics and community centers.Collins and other geneticists hope other biobanks can help fill the gap. For example, the Wellcome Trust is now the main funder of the China Kadoorie Biobank, with data on 515,000 people from mainland China, belonging to 10 ethnic groups. In the United States, the All of Us biobank funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) aims to use community outreach to help enroll at least half of its 1 million participants from minority groups, and like the UKB, promises to make data freely available. The Human Heredity & Health in Africa initiative has 70,000 participants so far across the continent, with funding from NIH and the Wellcome Trust. “There are ways of fixing this up. But we’ve got a long ways to go,” Birney says.Meanwhile, the UKB’s riches are growing. About half of the participants’ primary care data, including clinical data and prescriptions, will become available next spring. The UKB has also done MRI scans of the brains, hearts, and abdomens of 25,000 participants, with plans to scan 100,000; researchers are examining and annotating the images.Collins has been promoting the UKB’s scientific treasure in Silicon Valley in California, where he hopes bioinformatics experts will dig in and come up with unexpected findings. The genetic data are ballooning, too: Several companies are now sequencing the exomes, or protein-coding regions, of all UKB participants, and the United Kingdom’s public Sanger Institute is sequencing whole genomes from 50,000 volunteers. Unlike the genotyping data, which don’t usually point to specific genes, the sequences will allow researchers who have found a genetic marker linked to a disease to quickly zero in on the causative gene and see the specific mutations at work.Because of the $150 million cost of this sequencing work, the UKB had to compromise on open access: Companies have 9 to 12 months to use the exome data before they are made widely available. But Collins and his team, as well as geneticists around the world, are already gearing up for the wide release of the first batch of exome data on 50,000 participants. Again, they’ll allow time for the download, then release a code. The starting gun in the next scientific race is set for March.last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Iranian tanker wasnt headed to Syria Iran deputy foreign minister

first_imgBy Reuters |Geneva | Published: July 7, 2019 3:56:22 pm Advertising Royal Marines seized the tanker on Thursday for trying to take oil to Syria in violation of EU sanctions, a dramatic intervention described as “maritime robbery” by Araqchi.The minister said the giant tanker has a capacity of up to two million barrels of oil and that is why it was travelling through the Strait of Gibraltar rather than the Suez Canal.He did not give information on the tanker’s final destination. Post Comment(s) Advertising With Iran deal teetering on brink, Europeans assess next steps UK says seized Iranian oil tanker could be released Hassan Rouhani says Iran ready to talk to US if sanctions lifted iran oil tanker, iranian oil tanker, british royal marines, gibraltar, suez canal, strait of gibraltar, iran syria relations, syria iran, iran attacks on syria, world news, Indian Express A helicopter hovers near the Iranian oil tanker Grace 1 off Gibraltar, according to Britain’s Ministry of Defence, in a night vision photograph. (Reuters)An Iranian tanker captured by British Royal Marines in Gibraltar was not headed to Syria, Iran’s Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araqchi said on Sunday in a press conference broadcast live on state TV. “Despite what the government of England is claiming, the target and destination of this tanker wasn’t Syria,” Araqchi said. “The port that they have named in Syria essentially does not have the capacity for such a supertanker. The target was somewhere else. It was passing through international waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and there is no law that allows England to stop this tanker. In our view the stopping of this ship was maritime robbery and we want this tanker to be freed.”The government of Gibraltar said on Friday that they had received permission from their supreme court to hold the tanker for fourteen days.An Iranian Revolutionary Guards commander threatened on Friday to seize a British ship in retaliation. Related News last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Gadget Ogling Samsung Swings Plus Live 360 Cameras and Smart Tuners

first_imgSamsung is back with a new pair of flagship smartphones it desperately needs to be hits in the wake of previous handsets that were a touch too, erm, explodey.The Galaxy S8 and S8+ have dispensed with the physical home button and added an artificial intelligence assistant, screens that so very almost kill the bezel, and fingerprint sensors on the rear.The Super AMOLED screens have 2960 x 1440 resolution and wrap around the front of the device. Even without actually seeing the phone in person, I’m impressed. It’s as if the edge of the screen falls off, as though it were an infinity pool. It’s a smart, striking design.The 12-megapixel rear camera is apparently similar to last year’s model, but there’s an upgrade to the way Samsung process images, and it has upgraded the front-facing camera to 8 megapixels for sharper selfies and video calls.Welcome decisions: Samsung has kept the headphone jack, as well as microSD slots that can add up to 256 GB of storage. The S8 and S8+ are water resistant and dust resistant as well. The fingerprint sensor placement does seem odd, but with a massive screen and sans a physical home button, there aren’t many options for sensor placement on the front of the device.The truly major step forward for Samsung is the addition of the AI assistant, Bixby. The eventual goal is to let you completely control your phone with your voice, something that SIri and Google Assistant can’t pull off.That target is apparently a while away, though Bixby will have a few tricks up its sleeves by launch day. It will recognize your behavior and offer suggestions based on your habits, and it can offer contextual information about the world around you.Meanwhile, if you’re so inclined, you can hook up an S8 or S8+ to a monitor, keyboard and mouse, and use a desktop version of Android. That’s not an entirely novel idea, but if it works well it could prove vital to those who need to get work done in a pinch without carrying around a laptop.All looks good so far for the S8 and S8+, and Samsung has new rigorous safety and testing standards that it’s counting on to make those exploding batteries a thing of the past. Whether that is actually the case remains to be seen. Galactic Advances Tune Up The typical method of tuning a guitar means carefully turning the peg while repeatedly plucking the string to make sure it’s correct. This can prove mighty irritating to those you live with. Trust me.So the Roadie 2 sounds ideal for me. It does all the tuning work for you, monitoring string frequencies to make sure everything’s just right. You’ll still need to pluck the string, but hopefully less often. Coming at You Live in 360 Degrees These look like strong steps forward for Samsung — and if Bixby works as promised, the S8 and S8+ could prove to be game changers, especially on an accessibility level.Rating: 4 out of 5 Tiny Sticks of Dynamite Coming from Samsung, the chances are that it’s built well. Just make sure to clean your home before showing every corner of it to the entire planet.Rating: 4 out of 5 Worlds Around Us Welcome to Gadget Dreams and Nightmares, the column that really wants to make a lot of jokes about exploding smartphones while perusing the most compelling recent gadget announcements.In your latest edition, we probe the Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+, a 360-degree live-streaming camera, and an automatic guitar tuner.As always, these are not reviews, in part because I wasn’t flown out for the S8 launch event to test the phones with my own hands. Ahem. The ratings relate only to how much I’d like to try each item. We’ve a heavy Samsung focus this time around, so here’s a look at a new version of its 360-degree live-streaming camera.The Gear 360 has a slick design and can broadcast footage in 2K resolution (it can record in 4K), but perhaps its biggest selling point is that it can function with iPhones. That could prove to be a huge draw for people who want to stream everything around them but don’t want to jump to Android. This version doesn’t need to connect to an app to function, but if you do pair it, the app can track the health of your strings, which will help you know when to order a new set.I don’t know that I’d pay US$129 (or $79 during a crowdfunding campaign) for Roadie 2, but I like the idea. Anything that can help me reduce the frequency of tuning drones is music to my ears. (I’m so sorry.)Rating: 3 out of 5 Perfect Pitches Kris Holt is a writer and editor based in Montreal. He has written for the Daily Dot, The Daily Beast, and PolicyMic, among others. He’s Scottish, so would prefer if no one used the word “soccer” in his company. You can connect with Kris on Google+.last_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Rats and humans share ability to selectively forget distracting memories

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 7 2018Our ability to selectively forget distracting memories is shared with other mammals, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge. The discovery that rats and humans share a common active forgetting ability – and in similar brain regions – suggests that the capacity to forget plays a vital role in adapting mammalian species to their environments, and that its evolution may date back at least to the time of our common ancestor.The human brain is estimated to include some 86 billion neurons (or nerve cells) and as many as 150 trillion synaptic connections, making it a powerful machine for processing and storing memories. We need to retrieve these memories to help us carry out our daily tasks, whether remembering where we left the car in the supermarket car park or recalling the name of someone we meet in the street. But the sheer scale of the experiences people could store in memory over our lives creates the risk of being overwhelmed with information. When we come out of the supermarket and think about where we left the car, for example, we only need to recall where we parked the car today, rather than being distracted by recalling every single time we came to do our shopping.Previous work by Professor Michael Anderson at the Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, showed that humans possess the ability to actively forget distracting memories, and that retrieval plays a crucial role in this process. His group has shown how intentional recall of a past memory is more than simply reawakening it; it actually leads us to forget other competing experiences that interfere with retrieval of the memory we seek.”Quite simply, the very act of remembering is a major reason why we forget, shaping our memory according to how it is used,” says Professor Anderson.”People are used to thinking of forgetting as something passive. Our research reveals that people are more engaged than they realise in actively shaping what they remember of their lives. The idea that the very act of remembering can cause forgetting is surprising and could tell us more about people’s capacity for selective amnesia.”While this process improves the efficiency of memory, it can sometimes lead to problems. If the police interview a witness to a crime, for example, their repeated questioning about selected details might lead the witness to forget information that could later prove important.Although the ability to actively forget has been seen in humans, it is unclear whether it occurs in other species. Could this ability be unique to our species, or at least to more intelligent mammals such as monkeys and great apes?In a study published today in the journal Nature Communications, Professor Anderson together with Pedro Bekinschtein and Noelia Weisstaub of Universidad Favaloro in Argentina, has shown that the ability to actively forget is not a peculiarly human characteristic: rats, too, share our capacity for selective forgetting and use a very similar brain mechanism, suggesting this is an ability shared among mammals.To demonstrate this, the researchers devised an ingeniously simple task based on rats’ innate sense of curiosity: when put into an environment, rats actively explore to learn more about it. When exploring an environment, rats form memories of any new objects they find and investigate.Related StoriesStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingResearch team to create new technology for tackling concussionResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairBuilding on this simple observation, the researchers allowed rats to explore two previously-unseen objects (A and B) in an open arena – the objects included a ball, a cup, small toys, or a soup can. Rats first got to explore object A for five minutes, and then were removed from the arena; they were then placed back in the arena 20 minutes later with object B, which they also explored for five minutes.To see whether rats showed retrieval-induced forgetting, like humans, rats next performed “retrieval practice” on one of the two objects (e.g. A) to see how this affected their later memory for the competitor object (B). During this retrieval practice phase, the researchers repeatedly placed the rat in the arena with the object they wanted the rat to remember (e.g. A), together with another object never seen in the context of the arena. Rats instinctively prefer exploring novel objects, and so on these “retrieval practice” trials, the rats clearly preferred to explore the new objects, implying that they indeed had remembered A and saw it as “old news”.To find out how repeatedly retrieving A affected rats’ later memory for B, in a final phase conducted 30 minutes later, the researchers placed the rat into the arena with B and an entirely new object. Strikingly, on this final test, the rats explored both B and the new object equally – by selectively remembering their experience with A over and over, rats had actively trained themselves to forget B.In contrast, in control conditions in which the researchers skipped the retrieval practice phase and replaced it with an equal amount of relaxing time in the rats’ home cage, or an alternative memory storage task not involving retrieval, rats showed excellent memory for B.Professor Anderson’s team then identified an area towards the front of the rat’s brain that controls this active forgetting mechanism. When a region at the front of the rat’s brain known as the medial prefrontal cortex was temporarily ‘switched off’ using the drug muscimol, the animal entirely lost its ability to selectively forget competing memories; despite undergoing the same “retrieval practice” task as before, rats now recognized B. In humans, the ability to selectively forget in this manner involves engaging an analogous region in the prefrontal cortex.”Rats appear to have the same active forgetting ability as humans do – they forget memories selectively when those memories cause distraction,” says Professor Anderson. “And, crucially, they use a similar prefrontal control mechanism as we do. This discovery suggests that this ability to actively forget less useful memories may have evolved far back on the ‘Tree of Life’, perhaps as far back as our common ancestor with rodents some 100 million years ago.”Professor Anderson says that now that we know that the brain mechanisms for this process are similar in rats and humans, it should be possible to study this adaptive forgetting phenomenon at a cellular – or even molecular – level. A better understanding of the biological foundations of these mechanisms may help researchers develop improved treatments to help people forget traumatic events. Source:https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/selective-amnesia-how-rats-and-humans-are-able-to-actively-forget-distracting-memorieslast_img read more

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2019-07-19

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Latelife mortality plateaus can result from diverse statistical errors

first_imgLate-life mortality plateaus are generated if symmetrical errors (colored points) are seeded into error-free log-linear models (black line). Credit: Saul Justin Newman Dec 27 2018Better data collection, analysis reduces apparent declines in death rates in very oldHuman error, not human biology, largely accounts for the apparent decline of mortality among the very old, according to a new report publishing on December 20 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Saul Newman of Australia National University in Canberra. The result casts doubt on the hypothesis that human longevity can be greatly extended beyond current limits. As we age through adulthood, the probability of dying increases year after year. But studies in multiple species, including humans, have suggested that, at the far end of the lifespan, the rate of increase slows, or even plateaus. Biological explanations for such late-life mortality deceleration have been developed, but are controversial, and a role for statistical error has also been proposed.In the new report, Newman shows that a variety of errors, individually and combined, have the effect of producing a slowing of apparent mortality at the end of the lifespan, and can largely explain away the observed trends. Categories of error include those in demographic sampling, birth and death records, age reporting, and others.For instance, random errors in reporting of age within a population will result in some younger individuals being mistakenly recorded as older, and vice versa. As this population ages, older individuals mistakenly recorded as younger will die earlier than expected, but those mistakenly recorded as older will die later, enriching the pool of very old individuals and flattening the mortality curve.Related StoriesAnorexia may be as much a metabolic disorder as it is a psychiatric one, say scientistsNutritional supplements offer no protection against cardiovascular diseases, say researchersSepsis Alliance launches Maternal Sepsis Day to raise awareness and save livesNewman found that an error rate of as low as one in ten thousand would be sufficient to produce the observed declines in apparent age-related mortality. Furthermore, he was able to show that an improvement in data quality in large population studies corresponded with a reduction in late-life mortality deceleration.“These findings suggest that human late-life mortality plateaus are largely, if not entirely, artefacts of error processes,” Newman concludes. The finding has important consequences for understanding human longevity, since predictions that lifespan can be greatly increased have depended in part on the apparent decelerations and plateaus previously reported in the biological and demographic literature.In a separate short paper, Newman asked whether such errors might even explain away the late-life mortality plateau reported in a recent high-profile paper published in Science Magazine earlier this year by Elisabetta Barbi, Kenneth Wachter and colleagues – that paper used a high-quality dataset of nearly 4,000 death records from Italy to show that death rates decelerate after the age of 80 and plateau after 105. Newman calculates that this apparent effect could still be down to plausible error rates in record-keeping. In a response to this, Wachter defends the quality of their dataset, and describes Newman’s proposed error rate as “wildly implausibly high.”Newman does note that in at least one species, the fruit fly, an observed late-life mortality plateau does not seem to be due to error, and may require a biological explanation. “Discriminating between real and artefactual cases will require careful case-by-case analysis, and will constitute an ongoing challenge in the study of aging.”center_img Source:https://www.plos.orglast_img read more

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2019-07-18

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People with ancestors exposed to stressors have improved immune response to stress

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 23 2019Having ancestors who were frequently exposed to stressors can improve one’s own immune response to stressors, according to Penn State researchers. The results suggest that family history should be considered to predict or understand the health implications of stress.”Prolonged stress typically suppresses immune function within an individual,” said Tracy Langkilde, professor and head of biology at Penn State. “For example, we often think of ourselves as more likely to get a cold when we’re stressed. We found that lizards whose ancestors lived in low-stress environments experienced suppressed immune function when we exposed them to prolonged stress, just as you might expect. But for lizards whose ancestors lived in high-stress environments, those animals had more robust immune systems when they were exposed to stress. So the immune response to stress actually is dependent upon the environment experienced by previous generations.”According to Langkilde, the team conducted its work on fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus), but believes the results may be similar in other animals, perhaps even in humans. Of course, various animals are subjected to different kinds of stressors. In these lizards, she said, stress is often the result of attacks by fire ants (Solenopsis invicta), an invasive species that occurs in the southeastern United States and is spreading northward and westward.”Fire ants can sting and envenomate lizards, which is stressful and potentially fatal for lizards,” added Gail McCormick, a graduate student in Langkilde’s lab at the time of the research. “These attacks break lizards’ skin, leaving them vulnerable to infection, so it’s probably a bad idea to suppress immune function in response to stress when the predominate stressor, the fire ants, already induce an immune response through wounding. It turns out that lizards whose ancestors are from areas with fire ants have an improved immune response to stress, which may help to ensure their survival.”To investigate the immune consequences of stress on animals with different heritages, the team captured pregnant females from the wild from two different kinds of environments — one that had been invaded by fire ants 60-to-70 years prior, or the equivalent of 30-to-40 lizard generations, and one that had not yet been invaded by fire ants.The researchers raised the offspring of the captured females in high- and low-stress environments until they were adults. They created high-stress conditions by either exposing the lizards to fire ants or by dosing them every week with the stress-relevant hormone corticosterone dissolved in oil.Related StoriesStress during early pregnancy may reduce future fertility of offspringUTHealth researchers investigate how to reduce stress-driven alcohol useStudy reveals how genetic message to produce healthy heart tissue is altered during stress, aging”This concoction soaks into lizards’ skin like lotion, causing a spike in their blood corticosterone levels that mimics their physiological reaction to being chased or attacked by fire ants,” said Langkilde.Once the lizards reached adulthood — approximately 1 year old — the scientists assessed the animals’ immune function by measuring the ability of their blood plasma to hold a foreign protein in suspension.”We found that offspring of lizards from high-stress environments had suppressed immune function while offspring of lizards from low-stress environments had enhanced immune function when they were exposed to stress relevant hormones during their own lifetime,” said McCormick. “This change is likely adaptive, as an enhanced immune response in the face of stress should also enhance survival in the presence of frequent attack by fire ants.”A paper describing these results appears online as an accepted manuscript Jan 18 in the Journal of Experimental Biology.”This work poses several interesting questions,” said Langkilde. “In a stressful situation, animals often divert energy towards critical functions, like escaping a predator, and away from less immediately critical functions, like immune function, growth or reproduction. This is beneficial in the short term, but can be costly if stress is prolonged. If lizards from sites invaded by fire ants are not suffering from a compromised immune system, what are they trading off? Do they suffer lower growth or suppressed reproduction, instead, when exposed to high-stress environments? These are some of the questions we plan to investigate.”McCormick noted that understanding how species respond to stress can help in their management.”In this changing world, animals may experience stressful situations more often, in some cases due to new kinds of stressors such as interactions with humans or invasive species,” she said. “It’s imperative that we understand how species respond to stress, and if this response varies across populations, in order to better allocate resources to mitigate any negative effects.” Source:http://science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2019-news/Langkilde1-2019last_img read more

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2019-07-18

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DNA sequencing method could aid development of anticancer drugs

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Mar 8 2019DNA is small. Really, really, small. So, when researchers want to study the structure of a single-stranded DNA, they can’t just pull out their microscopes: they have to get creative.In a study published this week in Scientific Reports, researchers from Japan’s Osaka University explain how they came up with a really small solution to the challenge of studying anticancer drugs incorporated into single strands of DNA.With almost half of us likely to develop cancer at some point in our lifetime, the need for novel and effective treatments has never been more critical. And while researchers are constantly developing new and improved therapies to kill cancer cells, or at least halt their replication, a limited understanding of precisely how these drugs work can sometimes make it difficult to advance otherwise promising treatments.Related StoriesNew DNA Microscopy Technique Offers Novel Insight into Genomic Information in CellsUCR scientists decode genome of black-eyed peasArtificial DNA can help release active ingredients from drugs in sequenceOne such treatment, trifluridine, is an anticancer drug that gets incorporated into DNA as it replicates. While similar to thymine, one of the four nucleotides that make up DNA, trifluridine can’t bind to thymine’s partner nucleotide, adenine. This destabilizes the DNA molecule, resulting in aberrant gene expression and, ultimately, cell death.But exactly where trifluridine gets incorporated into the DNA remains a mystery because it is not distinguished by traditional DNA sequencing methods, hampering efforts to fully understand and develop the technology.Therefore, the team at Osaka University set about developing a DNA sequencing method that could distinguish the drug molecules from normal nucleotides in short strands of DNA. Using microscopic probes, the researchers passed an electrical current across a distance approximately 65,000 times smaller than a grain of sand—a gap just wide enough to fit a strand of DNA.”Using this single-molecule quantum sequencing method, we successfully identified individual molecules in the DNA based on differences in electrical conductance,” explains lead author Takahito Ohshiro. “For the first time, we were able to directly detect anticancer drug molecules incorporated in the DNA.”Importantly, the conductance of trifluridine was lower than that of the four native nucleotides, which also displayed divergent conductance values, allowing it to easily be distinguished in the DNA sequence. Based on these values, the researchers successfully sequenced single DNA strands of up to 21 nucleotides, pinpointing the exact insertion sites of trifluridine.”Now that we have the ability to determine exactly where the drug is incorporated, we can develop a better understanding of the mechanism involved in DNA damage,” says senior author Masateru Taniguchi. “We expect that this technology will aid in the rapid development of new and more effective anticancer drugs.” Source:https://www.osaka-u.ac.jp/enlast_img read more

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2019-07-18

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Infants later diagnosed with autism do not initiate joint attention themselves study

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 23 2019In typical development, both infants and their parents flexibly use verbal and non-verbal behaviors to establish frequent episodes of joint attention, such as when a child follows her parent’s gaze to look at an airplane in the sky. A new study published in Biological Psychiatry shows that infants who are later diagnosed with autism react adequately when others initiate joint attention, but seldom actively seek to establish such episodes themselves. This finding provides support for the view that children with autism have reduced social motivation already as infants.In the new study, the researchers investigated joint attention skills in 10-month-old infants. Joint attention means that one attends to the same objects and events as other people, which is critical both when infants learn about their environment and for their language development.”When the parent initiates, the child is said to be responding to joint attention – such as when he or she follows the gaze of the parent to look at an object. When the child initiates, it is referred to as initiation of joint attention. For example, by pointing or vocalizing the young child can guide the adult’s attention and shape his/her own immediate social environment to fit his/her needs and interests. Importantly, already before infants can point or speak, they may use their eye movements to influence the parent, by alternating gaze between the face of the parent and objects that have caught their attention. The current study assessed this particular type of preverbal communicative behavior in infancy,” says Pär Nyström, researcher at Department of Psychology, Uppsala University and one of the authors on the new study.The study included infants who had an older sibling with autism. Most of these infants develop typically, yet the probability of later being diagnosed with autism is considerably higher in this group than in the general population. The infants were tested in playful experiments designed to elicit different types of joint attention behaviors. During the session, an eye tracker measured where the infants looked.The infants were seated on their parents lap facing the experiment leader, when a lamp apparently out of sight of the experimenter suddenly started to flash (see illustration). The lights were flashing for 10 seconds, to provide the infant with an opportunity to initiate joint attention. Infants who later developed typically, tended to look frequently back and forth between the flashing light and the experimenter, as if they were trying to attract their attention and share this experience with the adult. In contrast, the infants who later were diagnosed with autism produced much less such communicative gaze shifts at 10 months of age, a critical age for the development of social cognition. These results suggest children with autism, as infants, may not themselves create as many opportunities for social learning as other children. The differences were rather subtle, but fully detectable with modern eye tacking technology. It is important to note that the results demonstrated significant group differences only, and it is too early to say whether the method can facilitate early detection in a clinical context.” Terje Falck-Ytter, Associate senior lecturer at Department of Psychology and Uppsala Child- and Babylab, Uppsala University and the principal investigator for the study Related StoriesTransgenerational BPA exposure may contribute to autism, study findsStudy offers new clues to autism’s underlying biologyEyes hold clues to effective treatment of severe autism, study showsIn contrast to the findings regarding initiation, the study showed that all infants tended to follow the experimenter’s gaze spontaneously. Strikingly, they were able to do so even when the experimenter only moved her eyes, while the head remained stationary.”The contrasting findings between responding to and initiating social communication may be informative for future research into early intervention”, says Terje Falck-Ytter.The study is a part of the larger project Early Autism Sweden (EASE) (www.smasyskon.se), which is a collaboration between Uppsala University and the Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND) in Sweden. The participants joint attention skills were examined at 10,14, and 18 months of age. At three years of age a full diagnostic evaluation was conducted. In total, 81 infants with an older sibling with autism took part in the study, of whom 22 met criteria for autism at follow-up. The study also included a control group consisting of 31 infants from the general population.Source: Uppsala UniversityJournal reference:Nyström, P. et al. (2019) Joint attention in infancy and the emergence of autism. Biological Psychiatry. doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.05.006.last_img read more

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2019-07-18

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Exposure to airborne metal pollutants linked with greater risk of mortality

first_imgThere have been very few studies on the health effects of airborne metal pollutants, partly because of technical limitations, such as the lack of stations measuring air pollution. We thought that moss, because of its capacity to retain these metals, would be a useful tool for estimating the atmospheric metal exposure of people living in rural areas.”Bénédicte Jacquemin, ISGlobal and INSERM researcher and last author of the study The scientists constructed a mathematical model based on the geolocation data for each moss sample and the results of the BRAMM laboratory analysis. This model was then used to map the exposure of each participant to the metals under study. The metals were classified into two groups, according to whether their origin was considered natural or anthropogenic. The final analysis showed that participants exposed to higher atmospheric concentrations of metals of anthropogenic origin had an increased risk of death.Related StoriesCancer mortality at an all time low finds reportResearch finds link between air pollution and coronary heart disease in ChinaStudy reveals how air pollution affects the human body at the metabolite levelThe metals deemed to be of anthropogenic origin were cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc. While all of these metals are naturally present in the earth’s crust, their presence in the atmosphere is due to human activities, such as industry, traffic and heating.”Our results indicate that the metals present in the airborne particulate matter could be a key component in the effects of air pollution on mortality”, explains Jacquemin. “It is important to bear in mind that the people we included in this study live in rural areas far from major urban and industrial centers and road networks. This means that they are very likely to be exposed to lower levels of air pollution than people living in urban environments, which gives us an idea of the seriousness of the health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels of exposure,” she stresses.”These findings support our hypothesis that moss bio-monitoring can be a good complementary technique for identifying the toxic components in suspended particulate matter,” the researcher adds.Source:Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)Journal reference:Jacquemin, B. et al. (2019) Long-term exposure to atmospheric metals assessed by mosses and mortality in France. Environment International. doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.05.004 Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 30 2019Although there is ample evidence that air pollution–specifically airborne particulate matter–is associated with an increased risk of premature death, it is still not known which specific particles are responsible for this effect. The Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a research center supported by “la Caixa”, participated in a study that used wild moss samples to estimate human exposure to airborne metal particles in order to analyze the relationship between atmospheric metal pollution and risk of mortality.This unique study, based on an innovative approach, has been published in the journal Environment International. It included data from 11,382 participants belonging to the Gazel cohort who were living in rural areas throughout France, a cohort that had been followed up for 20 years. The data on mosses came from the BRAMM biovigilance program, which collects and analyses moss samples from areas all over France situated at a distance from the country’s largest industrial and population centers. These samples are analyzed in the laboratory to measure the presence of 13 elements: aluminum, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, sodium, nickel, lead, vanadium and zinc.last_img read more

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2019-07-18

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Google bows to worker pressure on sexual misconduct policy

first_img In this Nov. 1, 2018, file photo workers protest against Google’s handling of sexual misconduct allegations at the company’s Mountain View, Calif., headquarters. Google is promising to be more forceful and open about its handling of sexual misconduct cases, a week after high-paid engineers and others walked out in protest over its male-dominated culture. CEO Sundar Pichai spelled out the concessions in an email sent Thursday, Nov. 8, to Google employees. (AP Photo/Noah Berger, File) Google bowed to one of the protesters’ main demands by dropping mandatory arbitration of all sexual misconduct cases. That will now be optional, so workers can choose to sue in court and present their case in front of a jury. It mirrors a change made by ride-hailing service Uber after complaints from its female employees prompted an internal investigation. The probe concluded that its rank had been poisoned by rampant sexual harassment.”Google’s leaders and I have heard your feedback and have been moved by the stories you’ve shared,” CEO Sundar Pichai said in an email to Google employees. “We recognize that we have not always gotten everything right in the past and we are sincerely sorry for that. It’s clear we need to make some changes.” Thursday’s email was obtained by The Associated Press.Last week, the tech giant’s workers left their cubicles in dozens of offices around the world to protest what they consider management’s lax treatment of top executives and other male workers accused of sexual harassment and other misconduct. The protest’s organizers estimated that about 20,000 workers participated. In this May 8, 2018, file photo, Google CEO Sundar Pichai speaks at the Google I/O conference in Mountain View, Calif. Google is promising to be more forceful and open about its handling of sexual misconduct cases, a week after high-paid engineers and others walked out in protest over its male-dominated culture. Pichai spelled out the concessions in an email sent Thursday, Nov. 8, to Google employees. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu, File) Some employers might even pre-emptively adopt some of Google’s new policies, given its prestige, said Stephanie Creary, who specializes in workplace and diversity issues at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. “When Google does something, other employers tend to copy it,” she said.Google got caught in the crosshairs two weeks ago after The New York Times detailed allegations of sexual misconduct against the creator of Google’s Android software, Andy Rubin. The newspaper said Rubin received a $90 million severance package in 2014 after Google concluded the accusations were credible. Rubin has denied the allegations.Like its Silicon Valley peers, Google has already acknowledged that its workforce is too heavily concentrated with white and Asian men, especially in the highest-paying executive and computer-programming jobs. Women account for 31 percent of Google’s employees worldwide, and it’s lower for leadership roles.Critics believe that gender imbalance has created a “brogammer” culture akin to a college fraternity house that treats women as sex objects. As part of its ongoing efforts, Google will now require at least one woman or a non-Asian ethnic minority to be included on the list of candidates for executive jobs. “While Sundar’s message was encouraging, important points around discrimination, inequity and representation were not addressed,” Holland wrote in an email responding to an AP inquiry.Nevertheless, employment experts predicted the generally positive outcome of Google’s mass uprising is bound to have ripple effects across Silicon Valley and perhaps the rest of corporate America.”These things can be contagious,” said Thomas Kochan, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology management professor specializing in employment issues. “I would expect to see other professionals taking action when they see something wrong.” The changes didn’t go far enough to satisfy Vicki Tardif Holland, a Google employee who helped organize and spoke at the protests near the company’s Cambridge, Massachusetts, office last week. In this Nov. 1, 2018, file photo, workers protest against Google’s handling of sexual misconduct allegations at the company’s Mountain View, Calif., headquarters. Google is promising to be more forceful and open about its handling of sexual misconduct cases, a week after high-paid engineers and others walked out in protest over its male-dominated culture. CEO Sundar Pichai spelled out the concessions in an email sent Thursday, Nov. 8, to Google employees. (AP Photo/Noah Berger, File) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Google reforms sexual misconduct rules Google is promising to be more forceful and open about its handling of sexual misconduct cases, a week after thousands of high-paid engineers and others walked out in protest over its male-dominated culture. In this Nov. 1, 2018, file photo Google employees fill Harry Bridges Plaza in front of the Ferry Building during a walkout in San Francisco. Google is promising to be more forceful and open about its handling of sexual misconduct cases, a week after high-paid engineers and others walked out in protest over its male-dominated culture. CEO Sundar Pichai spelled out the concessions in an email sent Thursday, Nov. 8, to Google employees. (AP Photo/Eric Risberg, File) Explore further The reforms are the latest fallout from a broader societal backlash against men’s exploitation of their female subordinates in business, entertainment and politics—a movement that has spawned the “MeToo” hashtag as a sign of unity and a call for change.Google will provide more details about sexual misconduct cases in internal reports available to all employees. The breakdowns will include the number of cases that were substantiated within various company departments and list the types of punishment imposed, including firings, pay cuts and mandated counseling.The company is also stepping up its training aimed at preventing misconduct. It’s requiring all employees to go through the process annually instead of every other year. Those who fall behind in their training, including top executives, will be dinged in annual performance reviews, leaving a blemish that could lower their pay and make it more difficult to get promoted.But Google didn’t address protesters’ demand for a commitment to pay women the same as men doing similar work. When previously confronted with accusations that it shortchanges women—made by the U.S. Labor Department and in lawsuits filed by female employees —Google has maintained that its compensation system doesn’t discriminate between men and women. Citation: Google bows to worker pressure on sexual misconduct policy (2018, November 9) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-google-worker-pressure-sexual-misconduct.html This document is subject to copyright. 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2019-07-18

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